- Classifications - organizes information into groups that share common characteristics
- Partition or spatial divisions - organizes information into major components and their minor sub-components.
- Segmentation - explains the relationship of events over time
- Comparison - attempts to present one item in the terms of another
- Cause and effect - describes and persuades by means of identifying causal relationshipsProblem and solution - organizes material in response to a dilemma
- Experimentation - organizes the information given, the purpose, aim, materials, procedures, results, and discussion in that order
Provide an illustrative example for each main point and explain the relationship of the example to the point it supports.
Use a variety of different kinds of support or proof for your statements, such as facts, statistics, examples, comparisons, testimonies (an eye witness account or a direct quotation), narrative (a story). This way you reach and persuade various members of your audience.
Repeat key concepts/points by expressing one idea in several different ways, thereby reinforcing important points.
So, for example, the problem-solution framework might be appropriate for a speech on waste management. You could structure the presentation as a series of key dilemmas; each one followed by a number of possible responses, the first being the ineffective response, and the second the better choice. Each time a problem is introduced, the listener could begin to anticipate a range of possible solutions and thereby become more receptive to the information that follows.